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World's Oceans

World's Oceans
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is considered a passive margin ocean with most of its geological activity centered along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Most of its coastal regions are low and geologically quiet. The Atlantic’s major marginal seas include the Mediterranean Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The Atlantic covers an area of 82 million square kilometers (32 million square miles). It has an average depth of 3,600 meters (11,812 feet). Its greatest depth is in the Puerto Rico Trench at 8,605 meters (28,231 feet).
Some of the current issues include -
endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; driftnet fishing is exacerbating declining fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern U.S., southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea

Arctic Ocean
A smooth, pale-blue layer of polar pack ice edged by jagged chunks of floating ice covers much of the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean, the earth’s northernmost cap. With an area of 12 million square kilometers (5 million square miles), the Arctic Ocean is the smallest ocean - more than five times smaller than the Indian and Atlantic oceans.
Some of the current issues include -
endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage

Indian Ocean
The smallest of the three major oceans, the Indian Ocean covers an area of about 73 million square kilometers (about 28 million square miles) - about 20 percent of the total area covered by the world's oceans. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 3,890 meters (12,762 feet). Its deepest point is the Java trench, at 7,725 m.
Some of the current issues include -
endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea

Pacific Ocean
The world's largest geographic feature, the Pacific Ocean covers more than 166 million square kilometers (more than 64 million square miles)—about one-third of the earth's surface. The area of the Pacific is greater than that of all of the continents combined, and it makes up nearly half of the area covered by the earth's oceans.
Some of the current issues include -
endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and South China Sea

Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean, designated as such in 2000, is a body of water that lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the Antarctica coastline. It's coordinates nominally are 65 00 S, 0 00 E, but the Southern Ocean has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent of Antarctica. This ring of water lies between 60 degrees south latitude and the coast of Antarctica, and encompasses 360 degrees of longitude. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean).
Some of the current issues include -
impacts of global warming, ocean currents, environment and climate change research, fisheries

Tags:World's Oceans Searches related to World's Oceans  world's seas  world's oceans list  picture of the world's oceans  oceans climate change  how many oceans are in world  5 oceans  four oceans of the world  what are the five oceans called,World's Oceans Searches related to World's Oceans  world's seas  world's oceans list  picture of the world's oceans  oceans climate change  how many oceans are in world  5 oceans  four oceans of the world  what are the five oceans called
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High Courts in the State


High Courts in the State

1.Appointment is made by President after consulting Chief Justice of India and High Court and Governor of the State.
2.He shall have put in 10 years Judicial Office or 10 years practice as Advocate of High Court. Maximum age is 62.
3.After retirement he can practice only in Supreme Court and in other High Courts.
4. Art.222, President can transfer Judges after consulting Chief Justice of India.
5.Art.224 additional – acting judge may be appointed by President for 2 years if there is temporary increase in the business of High Court or by reason of arrears.
6.As per 224 A-retired Judge can be appointed in High Court by Chief Justice of High Court with previous consent of President.
7 226 Writ powers is given – provision of stay without hearing other party 8.Jurisdiction of High Court to Union Territories can be made by Parliament and Parliament can establish one High Court for 2 or more states.
9.As on date 21 High Courts are in existence. Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established in 1862 – Allahabad in 1866 – Karnataka in 1884. Patna in 1916 and Jammu and Kashmir in 1928. Gauhathi, Chandigarh, Bombay High Courts serves 2 or more states. The following High Courts have benches also. Allahabad, Bombay, Calcutta, Guwathi, Jabalpur, Patna and Jodhpur in Rajasthan.


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Important Committees of India


Following are the Important Committees

1.Public Accounts Committee; constituted in 1923 - Consist of 22 Members – 15 from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha – Rajya Sabha Members can not vote. Ministers cannot be Members. From 1967 Member of opposition is Chairman. It has following important functions:
i) Examine Public Accounts of Government of India and report of CAG.
ii)Examine Whether money has been spent as authorized for the purpose. Point out waste- corruption – inefficiency etc.
iii)However it is not concerned with the policy making.
2.Estimate Committee created in 1950 with 30 Members all from Lok Sabha and if Deputy Speaker is Member, he becomes Chairman. Its functionsare
I.What economy, Improvement needed. II.Examine whether money is well laid out within the limit of the policy. III.Suggests alternative policy. IV.Suggests the form in which estimate shall be presented. However it will not prepare the estimate.
3.Committee on Public Undertakings – created in 1963.
On the recommendations of the Krishna Menan –22 Members and 15 from Lok Sabha. Every year 1/5 Members retire. The Chairman from Lok Sabha. It examines report and Accounts of Public Undertakings and considers the report of CAG on Public Undertakings. It also examine whether affairs of Public Undertakings are properly managed.
4.Business Advisory Committee ---- Constituted in both the Houses with 15 Members. Speaker or Chairman act as Ex-Officio Chairman -allocate the business of the house.
5.Committee on Private Members Bill and Resolutions - Lok Sabha Committee with 15 Members and chaired by Deputy Speaker.
6.Committee on Petitions – Separate Committee under both Houses. Ministers cannot become a Member.
7.Committee on Privileges - Separate Committee in both Houses.
8.Committee on Subordinate Legislations. Committee on both Houses. Ministers cannot be Member
9.Committee on Absent of Members from the sitting of House - .Not constituted in Rajya Sabha.
10.Rules Committee – In both Houses – Speaker or Chairman as Ex-officio Chairman.
11.Committee on Welfare of SC/ST – Joint Committee of both Houses with 20 from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha.
12.Committee on Science and Technology - Joint Committee with 15 from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha.
13) COMMITTEE ON EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
On the occasion of International Women's Day on 8th March, 1996, two identical resolutions for constituting a Standing Committee of both the Houses for improving the status of women were moved in the Rajya Sabha and the Lok SabhaThe Committee consist of 30 Members, 20 nominated by the Speaker from amongst the Members of Lok Sabha and 10 nominated by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha from amongst the Members of the Rajya Sabha. A Minister cannot be nominated a Member of the Committee and if a Member after his nomination to the Committee is appointed a Minister, he ceases to be a Member of the Committee from the date of such appointment.
14) COMMITTEE ON MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT LOCAL AREA DEVELOPMENT SCHEME (MPLADS)
The Committee on Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (Lok Sabha), an ad hoc Committee was constituted for the second time on 7 Janaury, 2000 under the discretionary powers of SpeakerA Minister is not eligible to become a Member of the Committee. If a Member after his election to the Committee is appointed a Minister, he ceases to be a Member of the Committee from the date of such appointment. The term of the Committee does not exceed one year. Functions (a) to monitor and review periodically the permormance and problems in implementation of the MPLADS Scheme (Lok Sabha); (b) to consider complaints of memebr sof Lok Sabha in regard to the Scheme; and (c) to perform such other functions in respect of the MPLAD Scheme as may be assigned to it by the Speaker from time to time.
Over all Analysis:
1.Estimate Committee, Private Members Bill and Absent of Members are only from Lok Sabha.
2.PAC, Public Undertakings Committee, SC/ST Committee and Science and Technology Committee are Joint Committees.
3.Business Advisory Committee and Rules Committee are headed by Speaker.4.Ministers cannot be Members in Public Accounts Committee, Committee on Subordinate Legislation and Committee on Petitions, Women Empowerment MPLADS
They can also be classified on performance basis.
1
Finance Committees
PAC, Estimates Committee, Public Undertakings
2
House Committees
Business Advisory, Rules, Pvt Members Bills, Absent of Members
3
Enquiry Committee
Privilege, Petitions
4
Scrutiny Committees
Subordinate Legislation, SC/ST, Papers laid on the Table,
5
DeptRelatedCommittees to scrutinize Demands of various Depts
17 – consist of 30 from Lok Sabha and 15 from Rajya Sabha—6 constituted by Chairman Rajya Sabha and 15 by Speaker.


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GOVERNOR-GENERALS AND VICEROYS OF INDIA



GOVERNOR-GENERALS AND VICEROYS

ROBERT CLIVE 1757-60 AND 1765-67: Battle of Buxar- Siraj Ud doula- Dual Govt in Bengal- First Treaty of Allahbad in 1765 with Shuja ud Doula and second with Shah Alam II..First Governor of Bengal. Battle of Plassey was in 1764 and Governor was Pensitrat
Warren Hastings (1772-85) First Governor-General of Bengal.

Creation of the post of Collector- Regulating Act of 1773

The Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the Governor General-in-Council and that of then Supreme Court at Calcutta).
-Pitt’s India Act of 1784.--The Rohila war (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by the Nawab of Oudh with help of the British.---First Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai (1782).--Second Mysore war (1780-84) (First one was fought in 1766-69).--Nand Kumar episode (1775) First English translation Gita by Charles Wilkins --Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784). After his return to England (1785), impeachment proceedings were started against him. After a prolonged trial (seven years), he was finally acquitted.
Lord Cornwalls (1786-93)
Third Mysore War (1790-92) and the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792).
Permanent revenue settlement.Reform of the judiciary- Creation OF district Judge (1793) – Code Europeonisation of Civil Service.
Sir John Shore (1793-98)
In the introduction of the permanent settlement (1793) he played an important role as the President of the Board of Revenue, but his Governor-Generalship was very uneventful.
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
Introduction of the system of Subsidiary Alliance (1798), and the first Subsidiary Treaty with the Nizam of Hyderabad (1798)-Fourth Mysore War (1799) and the annexation of many parts of Mysore.-Subsidiary Treaty of Bassein (1802) and Second Maratha War (1803-05).
  • Formation of the Madras Presidency after the annexation of the kingdoms of Tanjore and Carnatic.
  • Fort Williams- Training College.
Lord Minto I (1807-13)Before Minto, Sir George Barlow was the governor-general for two years (1805-07). Main event was the Vellore Mutiny (1806).
Treaty of Amritsar with Ramjit Singh (1809).--Charter Act of 1813
Lord Hastings (1813-23)
War with Nepal or the Gorkha War (1814-16); due to his success in this war, he was made Marquis of Hastings (1816).
  • Third Maratha War (1817-1818) – abolition of Peshwaship and annexation of all his territories, and creation of the Bombay Presidency (1818).
  • Pindari wars (1817-1818).
  • Introduction of the ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by governor, Thomas Munro (1820).
Lord Amherst (1823-28)First Burmese War (1824-26)Capture of Bharatpur (1826)
Lord William Bentinck (1828-35)- First Governor General of India.
Prohibition of sati (1829).
  • Suppression of thuggee (1829-35).-Charter Act of 1833.
  • Macaulay’s Minutes and introduction of English as the medium of instruction (1833)
  • Visit of Rammohan Roy to England (1830) and his death there (1833).
  • Deposition of the Raja of Mysore and annexation of his territories (1831).
Charles Metcafle 1835-36- Famous Press law and Liberator of Press in India
Lord Auckland (1835-42)
First Afghan War (1836-42) – disaster of the British in the war and recall of Auckland.-Death of Ranjit Singh (1839).
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44).
Termination of the first Afghan war (1842).
  • Conquest and annexation of Sind (1843)-War with Gwalior (1843).
Lord Hardinge (1844-48)
First Sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore (1846)
Prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the Gonds of central India.
Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of the Punjab.
  • Second Burmesewar (1852) and annexation of Lower Burma.
  • Charter Act of 1853.
  • Application of the Doctrine of Lapse and annexation of Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1849), Jhansi (1853) Nagpur (1854), etc.
  • Annexation of Oudh (1856).
  • Wood’s (President of the Board of Control) Education Despatch of 1854 and British assumption of the responsibility of educating the masses.
  • Introduction of the Railways (First train-Bombay to Thana), Telegraph (First line-Calcutta to Agra) and the Postal System in 1853.
  • Widow/Remarriage Act (1856)
  • Establishment of a separate Public Works Department in every province.
  • Santhal uprising (1855-56)
Lord Canning (1856-57)
Establishment of three universities (at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay) in 1857.
  • Revolt of 1857.
VICEROYS (1858-62)
Lord Canning (1858-62)-First Viceroy
Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and the India Act of 1858.
  • ‘White Mutiny’ by the European troops of the EICO in 1859.
India Councils Act of 1861. Portfolio system. Withdrawl of Doctrine of Lapse
Lord Elgin I (1862)
His sudden death in 1862; administration carried on by Sir Napier and Sir Denison from 1862 to 1864.
Lord John Lawrence (1864-69)
War with Bhutan in 1865.
Establishment of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
Lord Mayo (1869-72)
Establishment of two colleges for the education and political training of the Indian Princes-the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo college at Ajmer in Rajasthan.
  • First step in the direction of separation of central and provincial finances in 1870.-Organisation of Statistical Survey of India.First Census
Establishment of a Department of Agriculture and Commerce.Beginning of the system of State Railways.His assassination by a convict in the Andamans in 1872.
Lord North Brook (1872-76)
Visit of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) to India in 1875.
  • His resignation over the Afghan question.
Lord Lytton (1876-80)
Royal Titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of ‘Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria; the Delhi-Durbar in January 1877.
  • Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act of 1878.
  • Second Afghan War of (1878-80)
  • Appointment of the first Famine Commission under Sir Richard Strachey in 1878.
Lord Ripon (1880-84)
First Factory Act of 1881.
  • First Census taken in India (1881)-254 millions.
  • Introduction of Local Self-Government in 1882.
  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act in 1882.
  • Division of the finances of the center in 1882.
  • Appointment of an Educational Commission under Sir William Hunter in 1882.
  • The libert Bill Controversy (1883).
  • Coming into existence of the Famine Code in 1883.
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)Third Burmese war (1885-86)Foundation of the Indian National Congress (Lord Cross was the Secretary of State at that time).
Lord Lansdowne (1888-94)
Second Factory Act of 1891.
  • Division of the Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
  • Indian Councils Act of 1892.
  • Appointment of the Durand Commission and its definition of the Durand Line between British India and Afghanistan (now between Pakistan and Afghanistan) in 1893.
Lord Elgin II (1894-99)
Assassination of two British officials by the Chapekar brothers of Poona in 1897.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

Appointment of a commission under Sir Thomas Raleigh in 1902 to suggest reforms regarding universities, and the passing of the Indian Universities Act of 1904 on the basis of its recommendations.
· Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904.
· Establishment of an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa in Delhi.
· Partition of Bengal in 1905.
· Col.Younghusband’s Expedition to Tibet in 1904. I.S.T.
Lord Minto II (1905-10)
Anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movements.
  • Surat Session and split in the Congress (1907)
  • Minto-Morley Reforms or the Indian Councils Act of 1909.
  • Foundation of the Muslim League by the Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dacca, etc, in 1906.
Lord Hardinge II (1910-16)
Annulment of the partition of Bengal and creation of a Governorship for Bengal like Bombay and Madras in 1911. (Lieutenant Governorship for Bihar and Orissa, and Chief Commissionership for Assam).
  • Transfer of the Imperial capital from Calcutta to “Delhi (1911).
  • Coronation Durbar of King George V and Queen Mary at Delhi (December, 1911).
  • Death of G.K.Gokhale in 1915.Division of Bengal repealed
  • Foundation of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 by Madan Mohan Malviya and some Punjabi leaders.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
Foundation of two Home Rule League – one by Tilak in April, 1916 and another by Mrs. Annie Besant in September, 1916.
  • Lucknow session and the reunion of the Congress (1916) (Mrs.Besant played an important role in the reunion).
  • Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916. (Tilak played an important role in this).
  • Return of Gandhi to India (1915); foundation of the Sabarmati ashram (1916); Champaran satyagraha (the first time Gandhi experimented his new technique in India-1917); satyagraha at Ahmadabad (1918); Khaira satyagraha (1918).
  • August Declaration (1917) by Montague, the then Secretary of State, and Montford reforms or the Government of India Act of 1919.
  • Resignation of some veteran leaders led by S.N. Banerji from the Congress, and their foundation of the Indian Liberal Federation (1918).
  • Rowlatt Act (March, 1919)and the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (13th April, 1919)
  • Death of Tilak on Ist August, 1920.
  • Formation of the Khilafat Committee and the launching of the Khilafat Movement (1919-20).
  • Launching of the Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22).
  • Nagpur session of the Congress (Dec. 1920-kchanges in the constitution of the Congress.
  • Foundation of the Women’s University at Poona (1916)
  • Appointment of Sir S.P. Sinha as Lieutenant Governor of Bihar (Sir Sinha was the first Indian to become a Governor and the second Indian to become a member of the British Parliament, the first being Dadabhai Naoroji).
Lord Reading (1921-26)
Chauri Chaura incident (February 5, 1922) and the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi.
  • Formation of the Swaraj Party by C.R. Das (Deshbandu) and Motilal Nehru in December 1922.
  • Foundation of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha (RSS) by K.B.Hedgewar at Nagpur in 1925.
  • Repeal of the Rowlatt Act.
  • Holding of simultaneous examinations for the ICS in England and India with effect from 1923.
  • Beginning of Indianisation of the officer’s cadre of the Indian army.
  • Foundation of the Communist Party of India in 1925.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)(Popularly known as the ‘Christian Viceroy’)
Appointment of the Simon Commission (Nov. 1927) and the boycott of the Commission by the Congress.
  • Appointment of the Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission in Nov.1927 (to recommend measures for the establishment of better relations between the Indian states and the Central Govt.). and the convening of the All India Civil Services Coaching Centre States People’s Conference in Dec. 1927 by the states’ people in response.
  • ‘Deepavali Declaration’ by Lord Irwin (on 31st, 1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due course.
  • Lahore session of the Congress (Deg. 1929) and the Poorna Swaraj resolution; Fixing 26th Jan. 1930 as the first Independence Day.
  • Launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhi with his Dandi March (12th March, 1930), boycott of the first session of the Round Table Conference by the Congress (1930), Gandhi-Irwin pact and the suspension of the movement (March 1931).
Lord Wellingdon (1931-36) Participation of Gandhi in the second session of the Round Table Conference (Sep. 1931) and the failure of the conference, return of Gandhi to India (Dec.1931) and resumption of the movement, Gandhi’s imprisonment, final suspension of the movement in May, 1934.
  • Third session of the Round Table Conference in London (1932) without the representation of the Congress.
  • Announcement of the ‘Communal Award’ by Ramsay Macdonald, British P.M. (1932); Gandhi’s fast unto death in the Yeravadi prison and the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar (Sept.1932).
  • Government of India Act of 1935.
  • Separation of Burma from India (1935).
  • Foundation of the Congress/Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan (1934).
  • Formation of the All-India Kisan Sabha in 1936.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
Formation of Congress Ministries in majority of the provinces (1937).
Resignation of Subhas Chandra Bose from the Presidentship of the Congress as well as from its membership in 1939, formation of the Forward Block by Bose and his followers (1939).
Resignation of the Congress Ministries after the out break of the World War II (1939).
Celebration of the Congress Ministries’ resignation as ‘Deliverance Day’ by the Muslim League (1939), and its Lahore Resolution (23rd March, 1940), demanding separate state for the Muslims. (It was at this session that Jinnah propounded his Two-Nation Theory).
August Offer’ by Linlithgow (1940); its rejection by the Congress and the starting of individual satyagraha by Gandhi.
Escape of S.C. Bose from India in 1941.
Cripps Mission (March, 1942) offering Dominion Status to India, and its rejection by the Congress.
Passing of the ‘Quit India’ Resolution by the Congress at Bombay (8th August, 1942), arrest of all the Congress leaders and the outbreak of the ‘August Revolution’ or Revolt of 1942.
Lord Wavell (1943-47)
C.R.Formula evolved by C.Rajagopala Chari in 1944 and the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944) based on it: failure of the talks.Famine in Bengal
-Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference (1945) to discuss it; its failure.
-INA Trials and the Naval Mutiny (1946).
-Cabinet Mission (Three members-Lawrence, Cripps and Alexander) and acceptance of its plan by both the Congress and the League (1946)
-Formation of Interim Government by the Congress (Sep. 1946).
-Launching of ‘Direct Action Day’ by the League (17th Aug. 1946) but it also joined the Interim Govt. in Oct. 1946, though it abstained from the Constituent Assembly.
Lord Mountbatten (March-August, 1947) Mountbatten plan; partition of India and achievement of freedom. Also First governor General of Free India –Gandhi murder-Kashmir annexation
C.Rajajai :Second and Last GG of Independent India-


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MAHATMA GANDHI, NATIONAL MOVEMENT


MAHATMA GANDHI, NATIONAL MOVEMENT

* In 1887, Gandhi went to England for higher education and returned to India in 1892 after becoming a Barrister.
* In 1893 he went to South Africa – for a year – spent twenty two years in that country.
* He returned to India on January 9 – NRI Day.
* Gandhi recorded his initial thoughts in 1909 in Hind Swaraj.
* Gandhi’s four preconditions – a) perfect chastity b) adopt poverty c) follow truth and d) cultivate fearless.
* Gandhi began his experiments with Satyagraha – Champaran in Bihar in 1917 – Indigo Planters.Committee of enquiry of which Mahatma Gandhi himself was made a member.
* The Committee of Enquiry recommended some measures to alleviate the miseries of the Indigo cultivators thereby bringing the Satyagraha to an end.
* The movement launched by the peasants at Kheda(1917) in Gujarat was another instance – Peasants not able to pay rent. Vallabhbhai Patel, who became one of the most active and dedicated followers of Mahatma Gandhi from Kheda.
* In 1918 the mill workers of Ahmedabad got into dispute – 35 Percent increases.
* Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political Guru (mentor).
* On 30th March 1919 it was decided to launch first nationwide hartal against Rowlatt Act which was called Black Law and which empowered arrest without reasons.. But, as the decision could not reach everywhere in the country, the date was postponed to 6 April
* Satyagarha Sabha – organized at Bombay – Hindu Muslim unity was seen.
* In Delhi – hartal – organized on 30 March 1919. * On April 1919 Gandhi – arrested.
* Jallianwala Bagh - 13 April – day of Baisakhi – Punjab as a special day to celebrate the harvesting season – Government proclaimed a ban.* At 4.00 p.m on the same day a public meeting was called – Jallianwala Bagh was not a garden – rather it was an open space near the Golden Temple in Amristar.At one point of time it was a personal property of a person named Jalli.
* General Dyre – when speakers reciting the poem ‘Fariyad’ –ordered troops to shoot at the crowd from the exit point.
* As per Government Report – 179 people were killed in the accident - according to the Congress Committee the number of people who died could around one thousand.
* An enquiry committee under the Chairmanship of Hunter was setup on 19 October 1919. The committee submitted its report after about a year on 26 May 1920.Some
* Called him as the ‘the defender of the British Empire’ and honored him with sword and an amount of 2,00,000 pound – Gandhi after this event the British lost the moral authority to rule over India – Rabindranath Tagore renounced knight hood titles as a mark of protest.
* Khilafat – Sultan of Turkey was regarded as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims all over the worlds – a movement to express the Muslim support for the Caliph of Turkey against the allied powers, particularly Britain.
* Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. M.A. Ansari, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari (Lucknown), Hakin Ajmal Khan and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.
* On October 1919, he whole country had observed the Khilafat day – Committee had been formed in September 1919. – March 1920 committee under the leadership of Maulanan Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali was also sent to England.
* British Government – signed Treaty of Tibers on 10 August 1920 – Turkey was partitioned – Sultan was made a prisoner and sent to Constantinople.
* On 1, August 1920, in a communication to the governor General, Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin non-cooperation with the Government as a sequel to the Rowlat Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat movement.
* Gandhi’s plan was approved by the Indian national congress in a special session at Calcutta in December 1920.C.R.Das opposed it.
* Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant and Bipin Chandra Pal were not in agreement with the congress declaration of non-cooperation and, thus they left the Congress.
Features of Non Cooperation: Boycott of Law Courts, foreign clothes, establishment of panhayattis, promotion of Khadi.Prince of Walesboycotted in Nov 1921 during his visit.
* The Khilafat meeting in Malabar incited so much of communal feelings among the Muslims peasants (The Moplahs) that it took an anti-Hindu turn in July 1921 – Moplah rebellion.
* On 5 February an agitated crowd gheraoed the police station at Chauri chaura in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh and set fire it. Twenty two policemen including the station officer died in the incident.
*Gandhi announced the suspension of the movement.
Revolutionary movements :
Kakori Robbery: * Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil occupies a special place. He published book with the title ‘How did America get Freedom’ and a pamphlet with the heading ‘A Message for the countrymen’ * On 9, August 1925 when the money sent by the government from Saharnpur to Lucknow by train was looted at the Kakori railway station. In December 1927, on the charges of conspiracy, Ram Prasad bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan singh and Ashfaquallah Kahn were hanged.
* Ashfaqualah Khan was the first Muslim revolutionary of India to be hanged for the sake of the country’s freedom.
Saunder’s Murder and Central hall Bomb throwing: * On 9, June 1931 Harishen was hanged on the grievous charges of murder. Sardar Bhagat Singh born in Banga in Layalpur district – found the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926.
* Lala Lajpat Rai owing to a police lathi charged led by Saunders was taken as a national humiliation and the later was assassinated on 17 December 1928.
* Bhagat Singh in the mean time had left Lahore in disguise. He had also participated in the congress Session at Calcutta in 1928 – he chose the Central legislative Assembly at Delhi as his targets * The throwing of the bomb in the Assembly on 8 April 1929 by Bhagat Singhand Batukeshwar Dutt shook up the whole country into a new enthusiasm – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
Swaraj party- Pro and No Changers: * The leaders of the congress were spilt into two groups. The first group comprised of those who wanted a change in the programme of the Congress and in reality did not approve the Non-Cooperation Movement. Prominent among such leaders were Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das and Motilal Nehru, who were called ‘pro-changers’.
* The other groups consisted of those members who supported the non-cooperation movement and retained full faith in the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. This group came to be known as ‘no-changers’. Prominent among the no-changers were C.Rajagopalachari and Dr. M.A. Ansari.
* In March 1923, Chittaranjan Das along with Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at Allahabad to take parting November 1923 council elections.
* Elections – in November 1923 – Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party whereas in Bengal the party was headed by Chittranjan Das.
* Simon Commission – the act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. Thus, such a review was due in 1929.
* The Conservative Party appointed the review commission two years ahead of its schedule, in 1927.
* Simon commission after the name of its chairman, Sir John Simon – all its seven members were Englishmen, the Commission was also called the ‘White men Commission’.
* There were no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism – all the political parties including the Congress, the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League decided to oppose the Commission tooth and nail – 3 February 1928 when the Commission reached Bombay.
* At Lahore the student took out a large anti-Simon commission - LalaLajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge ordered by Saunders, assistant superintendent of Police of Lahore. As a result of which he passed away after one month – His last words, “Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire.
* With the sole exception of a few members of the Muslim League, the rulers of the Princely States and zamindars, all political parties and the sections of the Indian people opposed the Simon Commission – report published in May 1930 – Dyarchy was unsuccessful – recommended special powers to Governor General at the centre and Governors at the Provinces.
* Indians rejected the Simon commission report out of Hand as it did not mention anything in regard to conferring the Dominion Status – Simon Commission’s report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act 1935.]
* Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, while delivering a speech on the floor of the British Parliament challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution.
* The Report published by this Committee in July 1928 came to be known as the ‘Nehru Report’.
* Muslim League – Central Sikh League, Sardar Kharak Singh also rejected it – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. M.A. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Kahn supported it. * Jinnah, thereafter convened an All Indian conference of the Muslims where he drew up a list of fourteen point demand.
* Nehru Report was approved by a majority vote in the annual session of the Congress held in Calcutta on 2 December 1928, an ultimatum was served on the British government to accept the Report by 31 December 1929.
* Poorna Swaraj-The annual session of the congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. The place where this session was held was named as the Lajpat Rai Nagar.
* Dandi March – Gandhi reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles with 78 handpicked followers and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws.
* On 9 April, Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws; picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes; organizing the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha; fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people.
* Many Muslims kept themselves aloof from this movement – northwest Frontier Province an organization of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of God) was formed under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Most of the volunteers donned red clothes, because of which they came to be known as the Red Shirts.
* The khudai Khidmatgars accepted the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and participated in the movement in full measures.
* The government had to send a detachment of the 18th Royal Garhwal Rigles to suppress this movement. But as the Garhwali soldiers refused to open fire on the unarmed people, the government pressed the air force into action.
* Round table conference – first such conference held on 12 November 1930 at London, failed to resolve he communcal question as it was boycotted it by the Congress.First civil disobedience movement –Gandhi put 11 demands including cut in military expenses, total prohibition,release of political prisoners etc,.
* On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was singed. As per this pact Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact.
* On 7 September 1931, the Second round Table conference was held at London; Gandhi joined the Conference on 12 September but returned o India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence on the communal question.
* On 3 January 1932, the civil disobedience Movement was resumed. The government responded to it by arresting Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban of the Congress Party.
(Dr Ambedkar: * In July 1924 Ambedkar had organized a Bahishkrit hitkar Sabha (the Depressed Classes Institute) with the objective of raising the moral and material status of the untouchables.)
* Fist Round Table Conference he had demanded separate electorates for depressed.
* On 16 August 1932, British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald made an announcement, which came to be as the ‘communcal Award’.
* According to this award the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them.
* Gandhi protested against the Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
* Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam and Das Birla, C. Rajagopalachari and Dr. Ambedkar gathered at Pun and hammered out an agreement with the consent of Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar. This agreement came to be called as the ‘Poona Pact’ British Government also approved of it.
* 148 seats in different Provincial legislatiures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award. A Common electorate of all Hindu, including the Depressed Classes was agreed upon.
* Special provision for representation of the depressed people in local bodies and civil service were also made.
* The Third Round table conference was held from 17 November to 24 December 1932. The Congress once more did not take part in it.
* In March 1933, the British Government issued a White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935.
* In July 1933, the Congress decided to launch an Individual Civil Disobedience in place of Mass Civil Disobedience.
* Under the Morely-Minto Reforms of 1909 only one percent , and under the Montague Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 two and half percent of Indian got voting rights, under the Government of India Act of 1935 only 13 percent of India’s population became eligible voters.
* In accordance with the provinces of the government of Indian Act of 1935 elections to the Provincial Legislatures were held in February 1937.
* Congress – virtually swept the polls – Muslim League – faced miserable defeat – out of the 482 Muslim seat it could register victory only in 81 seats.
* On 7 July 1937, after the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow assured the Congress of his cooperation the party formed its Ministery in 7 Provinces.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
* Congress Ministeries were formed in seven states of India. These states were the North West Frontier Province, the Central Provinces, Bombay, Bihar, Orissa, the United Provinces and Madras.In two provinces namely Sindh and Assam, ministries were formed with the Congress support whereas in Punjab the Unionist Party and the Muslim League formed the coalition ministry of Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League came to power.
* Second World War broke out. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. The Congress vehemently opposed it – also resigned from Ministries in all Provinces.
* Muslim League raised the slogan ‘Islam is in danger’. At this juncture, Jinnah also presented the ‘two-nation theory’ – inflamed communal feelings by saying that now Hindi would become the national language of India and Bande Mataram would be its national song.
* Pirpur Report and the Sharif Report also inflamed the communal passions.
* Muslim League celebrated 12 December 1939, the day on which the Congress Ministries from office as the ‘Deliverance Day’ – accepting two-nation theory in its annual session at Lahore – Jimait-ul-Ulema-e-Hind opposing the demand for Pakistan – Khudai Khidmatgar and the Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-hind too opposed the idea.
* On 8, August 1940 which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’- It said Indians would set up to frame the new Constitution. Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch individual Staygraha – limited symbolic and non-violent in nature – On 17, October 1940, Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment.
* Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahaist ; the third Satyagrahi was Brahma Dutt - continued for nearly 15 months –
British sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942.
* Cripps proposals included Dominion Status to India, protection of minorities and setting up of Constituent Assembly. The major political parities of the country rejected the Cripps proposals.
* The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded – 26 April 1942, he asked the British to quit India.
* In July, the Congress Executive Committee passed the Quit India Resolution at Wardha. The All India Congress Committee further considered it at Bombay in its meeting on 7-8 August 1942. * Mahatma Gandhi was kept in prison a Poona.
* Working Committee of the Congress Socialist Party was in session, where it was decided to carry forward the movement from under ground. Among its prominent leaders who took this decision were Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta Patwardhan, Ramananda Mishra and S.M. Joshi.
* Quit India Movement had passed through four stages. The first stage was from 9 to 11 August 1942 when strikes, demonstrations and public meeting wee organized in various towns and cities.
* In its second stage from 12 August to 22 September the movement reached the rural areas. During this stage the Government adopted a policy of repression. Government structures, municipality buildings, railways stations, police stations, post offices and trains came under public ire.
* In the third stage from 23 September 1942 to February 1943 there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal. Bombs were thrown at many places in Bombay and the United Provinces
* February 1943 to 9 May 1944 was the fourth stage of the movement when Gandhi was released from jail. During this period, many demonstrations were held, processions taken out, anniversaries of national leaders celebrated and national weeks observed. Students’ peasants and workers took active part in it. The Muslims by and large, remained indifferent.
* Participation – lower middle class, political parities, Communists, Muslim league, Liberals opposed the movement, Savakar criticized the Government and directed his followers not to take part in the movement, and Anglo-Indian Community under the leadership of Anthony opposed the movement.
* Hindu Mahasabha established in 1915 on the occasion of the Kumbh Mela at Haridwar by Madan Mohan Malaviya.
* Lord Linlithgow described it most dangerous since the 1857 revolt.
* The Communist Party of India had come into being by 1925. The British government which declared the organization illegal in 1934. This ban continued in 1942.British Removed the ban on the Communist Party of India in July 1942 in return for the latter’s promise to extend full cooperation to the British in its war efforts.
* Subash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 at Cuttack in Orissa. He passed the Civil Services Examination in 1920 but not joined to serve the nationalist cause instead of serving the British Empire.
* Chittaranjan Das was instrumental in inspiring him top join the national freedom struggle – unanimously elected President of the Congress at its Haripura session.
* In May 1939, Subash Chandra Bose formed a new group which came to be called the Forward Bloc. July 1940 subhas was arrested under the Defence of India Rules. In the guise of a Pathan left the country on 16 February 1941 and reached Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram.
* He went to Germany and met Hilter. He was first addressed as Netaji in Germany. Indian National Army goes to Captain Mohan Singh, who set up the first division of the INA on 1 September 1942.
* On 2 July 1943, Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’.
* Formation of the Azad Hind Government and proclaimed ‘Give me blood and I will give you freedom’. He organized the Indian National Army and gave the country the slogan of ‘Jai Hind’.
* the name of the INA’s three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade, and Nehru Brigade – women’s detacgnebt after the name of Rani Laximibai – was recognized by Japan, Germany, Italy, China, Ireland, Burma (Brahma Desh) and Philippines.
* On 8 November 1943, Japan headed over Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Subhas Chandra. In turn, Nataji named these islands as ‘Shaheed Island’ and
‘Swaraj Island’ respectively. Germany accepted defeat on 7 May 1945. On 6 August 1945, atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
* After crossing the Formosa Island on his way to Tokyo died on 18 August 1945 as his plane suddenly caught fire. The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soliders.
* On 20 January 1946, some soliders of the Air force staged a hartal against the British Government in Karachi. The hartal soon spread to Bombay, Lahore and Delhi.
* About this time, on 19 February 1946, some Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy also ined mutiny. They also demanded equal treatment. The civilian population of Bombay also joined hands with them by striking work – due to the efforts of Sardar Patel, this agitation came to end.


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PARTITION OF BENGAL

PARTITION OF BENGAL

1. Reason: Curzon’s imperialist policy of ‘divide and rule’ manifested itself most glaringly in the partition pf Bengal. The reasons given were --The area and population of the Provinces of Bengal was too large. There was a problem of communication. Highways were not safe. The peasants of this province were a harassed lot.
2. But actually the cause behind the partition was much more political than administrative. Bengal was becoming the nerve centre of nationalist activities in India.
3. On 19 July 1905 the Government of India formally proposed the partition of Bengal. According to this proposal Chittagong, Rajshahi and Dacca were merged with Assam to form the new province.
4. The proposed area of the new province was fixed at 1 lakh 6 thousand 5 hundred 40 square miles and its population was 3 crore 10 lakh out of which the Muslims accounted for 1 crore 80 lakh and Hindus 1 crore 20 lakh.
5. Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on 16 October 1905. Sir Aurobindo’s Ghosh (1872-1950) played a prominent parting the nationalist movement of India. Particularly his contribution to the movement against the partition of Bengal was unparalleled. Sir Aurobindo left Baroda to work in the National College in Calcutta with a view to make education compatible to the national needs. The National College in Calcutta had been established on 14 August 1906. Sir Aurobindo’s second revolutionary contribution was the editing of the Bande Mataram paper. A series of seven articles published by Sir Aurobindo’s, between 11 and 23 April 1907 under the heading, ‘Doctrine of Passive Resistance’ in Bande Mataram became very popular. The Partition of Bengal infused a sense of nationalism among the Indians and also gave birth to the swadeshi movement which galvanized the masses against the partition of Bengal. Since 16 October 1905, the reactions against the partition of Bengal started taking shape. This day was observed as a ‘Black Day’. People took holy dip in the Ganga and kept vows. They also tied Rakhi in each other’s hand as symbol of unity.(Partition of Bengal was annulled in 1911 by Lord Hardine.)
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MODERN INDIA HISTORY


1.Shakespeare termed India as a land of ‘great opportunities’. Hegel called India as the ‘land of desires’. Until 15th Century there were three trade routes only. First route to Caspian and Black Seas through Central Asia; Second to Mediterranean Sea through Syria. Third route to Egypt via Red Sea. But in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by Turkish all the routes were closed.
2.Portugese: Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on 20.5.1498 and Zamorin King welcomed him. This new Sea route via ‘Cape of Good Hope’ and discovery of America were termed as two greatest by Adam Smith. He again came in 1502. First Governor was Fransiscl Almedia. In 1509 Alfonso d’ Albuyquerque came to India as Portuguese Governor and captured Goa from Bijapur in 1510. Capital transferred from Cochin to Goa in 1530 by by Nino- da cuncha,. Lost Hoogli in 1631 to Shajahan.1661 Bombay given Royal dowry toCharles II for marrying Catherine. But they could not continue in India due to religious intolerance and piracy. They taught us tobacco cultivation. Goa freed in 1961
3.Dutch – In 1595 Dutch merchants started going to India They formed Dutch East India Company(VOC) in 1602. They established a few trading depots at Surat, Cambay, Ahmedabad.Lost to British in 1759 in the battle of Bedara 1759.
4.East India Company – It was originally known as Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and Queen Elizabeth I granted royal charter on 31.12.1600. The first Governor was Thomas Smith and Groups were known as ‘Merchant Adventurers’. Hawkins was given 400 manasabs by Jahangir. In 1615 James I sent his Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of Jahangir. First they started factory at Surat, in 1633 at Musulipattam. Fort St. George was constructed in 1640 and a factory was opened at Bangalore in 1642.
a) Got madras in 1639 from Raja of Chandagiri and Fort St George
b). In 1661 Bombay was received as royal dowry from Portuguese for marrying their Princess Catherine Braganza with Charles II. The Company got it from the King in 1668 for an annual rent of 10pounds.
c) In 1715 three villages Sutanati, Kalikota and Govindpur got by Hamiltongained firman in 1717 called magna carta of the company.
5) Danes: Came in 1616 Coy- Tarangampadi- Serambore capital.Sold all settlements to British in 1845.
6) French: 1664 company- First factory at Suratr and machilipattinam- First governor wasFrancois Martin- Dupliex powerful and Carnatic Wars.
7.Carnatic War French were the last to come – a.First war 1745 to 1748 – due to capture of French ship by Barmett and Duplleix opposed it . Fought at St, Thome and French won. However end of war of Austria also ended this war and Madras was given to English.
b.Second war 1749-54. French supported Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib. French lost and Arcot was captured by Clive. Chanda Sahib executed.
c.Third War – Outbreak of seven years war in Europe and Capture of Chandra Nagoor by Clive led to the War.
8.Battle of Plassey 1757 – Between Siraj-ud-daula and British – British won and it paved a way for British Monarchy of Bengal – marked beginning of drain of wealth from India to Britain.
9.Battle of Buxar 1764 – Between Munro and Mir Quasim, Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Alam II. British won and became defacto rulers of Bengal.
10.Anglo Maratha War. a.First 1775-1782 – defeated of Britain. b.Second – 1803-1805c.Third – 1817-1818.

INDIA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY(SPK)

1.Political and other Conditions Generally it was fluid and past deteriorating. Disintegration of Mughal Empire, Growth of Marathas and Peshwas and rise of autonomous states and foreign invasions were the salient future. Women were treated badly and were victims of Saty, Child marriage, Infanticide, Purdha (both muslims and higher caste Hindus wore it) and Devadasi system in Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
2.Disintegration of the Mughal Empire
I.It started with death of Aurangzeb in 1707. During Shah Alam II its boundary shrink from ‘Alam to Palam’ - Red Fort to Village.
II.Three sons of Aurangzeb fought a.Muhammad Muazzam was first son called Bahadur Shan I – captured power and prevented demolitions of temples. He was called Shah-I-Bekhabar b.Second son was Muhammad Azam and was killed c. Third son was Kam Bakhas who was favourites to his father and was called ‘Deen Panah’ (Saviour of the religion)
III.In 1712 Jahandar Shah came to throne with the support of Zulfikar Khan. He did away Jaziya tax. He honoured Rana Jai Singh of Amer as ‘Sawai’.
IV.He was killed by Farrukh Siyar with the help of Saiyid brothers and he rulled from 1713-1719. Saiyid brothers were Abdulla Khan and Hussain Ali Khan. Who were known as ‘king makers’.
V.After death of Siyar, two princes Rafi-ud-Darajat and Daula came to throneand finally Muhammad Shah rulled Delhi from 1719-1748. HENCE DURING 1719 THERE WERE FOUR MULSIMS RULERS.
vi.After death of Muhammad Shah his son Ahmad Shah ruled for six years from 1748-1754. During his period Ahmad Shah Abdali raided India several times.
VII.Hence Aziz-ud-din came to throne and was called Alamgir II. His successors were Shah Alam II 1759-1806, Akbar Shah II 1806-1837 and Bahadur Shah II 1837-1857.
VIII.There were many manasabs in the Mughal Court. They were Irani from Iran, Turani from Central Asia, Afgan and Hindustani. Saiyid brothers were Hindustani. If Saiyid brothers continued they would have succeeded in establishing frank and powerful Government.
3.Maratha Power
I.After Ahahuji Raja Ram came to throne. II.Shahiji was released by Bahadur Shah I. III.Civil War between Shahuji and Tara Bai widow of Rajaram. IV.Shahuji appointed Balaji Vishwanath as first Peshwa which was hereditary. Second Peshwa was Baji Rao and third was Balaji Baji Rao and last was Baji Rao II. Their seat of power was Poona. They own many baters but lost the crucial third batter of Panipat. Even though they own Hydrabad in 1760.
4.Rice of Autonomous Statesa.Awadh – Saadat Khan established. He was also called Burhan-ul-Mulk. He joint hands with Nadir Shah and later committed to suicide. Safdarjand and Shuja-ud-Daula were prominent rulers.
b.Bengal in 1700 – Murshid Quli Khan became Diwan of Bengtal.
c.Hydrabad Nisamk-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah found it in 1724 and found Asafjahi dynasty. It entered with subsidiary alliance of Britian.
d.Mysore – I.Haider Ali associated with first two An glo Mysore Wars and killed in second war. First he was appointed as Faujdar of Dindigul. First war (1767-1769) – He conquered Malabar and Coorg. Second Anglo war 1780-1784 and he died in 1782.
II.Tipu Sultan – Ruled from 1782-1799. His attempt to remove commander of Bednur was vital. During his period treaty of Mangalore find after second war and he withdrew from Carnatic. In 1787 he proclaimed himself as kPadshah. Third Anglo Mysore war 1790-1792 and jktreaty of Seringapattam and he paid three crore rupees. Fourth war 1799 and Tipu was killed. He sent Ambassador to Foreign Country
e.Kerala – Started by King Martanda Verma. In 1805 Travancore joind subsidiary alliance with Britain.
f.Rajput – Sawai Jai Singh built Jaipur. He was expert in Geometry, Trignometry and Sanskrit.
g.Sikhs – He started with Guru Nanak Dev. Guru Gobind Singh was the 10th and last Guru and he formed Sikh Khalsa with 12 Sikh confederations (misls). Ranjit Singh was Ch8ief of Misls.
h.Assam – It was also known as Kamrup and Pragjyotishpur. They resisted all foreign invasions.
5.Foreign Invasions – a. Nadir Shah – Persian ruler whose father was Shepherd. In 1738 he conquered Kandhar. In 1739 he invaded India and fight at Karnal. He defeated Nadir Shah. He took seventy crore rupees and also peacock throne built by Shah Jahan and famous Kohinoor diamond. b.In 1747 Nadir Shah was assassinated. Ahmad Shah Abdali became ruler and invaded seven times India and looted many properties. His significant win was third battle of Panipat, which was fifth invasions in which he defeated Marathas in 1761 under Baji Rao I. Even to day there is a memorial at Panipat in honour of Marathas soldiers who were killed.
THE BRITISH ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA (1757-1857)
-Until 1765, the East India Company was basically a trading concern.
  • Lord Clive, during his second term as Governor, established Diarchy in Bengal and this system was continued for 7 years.`
  • The College established by Lord Wellesley, at Fort Williams in 1800 which integrated training in history, customary laws and languages did not find the favour of the Court of Directors and it was continued only language training School till 1854.
  • The Company established in 1806 its own training College in England in the name of East India College at Hailsbury.
Cornwallis first Governor General established a regular police force on the British pattern in India.
The Supreme Court held its proceedings on the basis of English laws. The Sadar Diwani and Sadar Nizamat Adalats (Criminal) operated on the basis of Indian laws.
The first Law Commission constituted to codify and improve rules and regulations was framed Indian Penal Code (IPC) which came into effect in 1860.
Warren Hastings established a Board of Revenue to improve the system of revenue administration. .
In 1854, Sir Charles Wood sent a comprehensive dispatch on education to the Government of India in which the issues regarding the establishment of departments of public instructions in five provinces of the Company, promotion of western education in English and Indian languages and the pattern of grants in aid to encourage private participation in the field of education were recommended.
Despatch recommended the establishment of one University each in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, on the Model of the London University. In 1857 the three Universities were established on the basis of Wood’s recommendation.
In July 1856, J.P.Grant, a member of the Governor General’s Council tabled a bill supporting widow remarriage was passed on 13 July 1856 and came to be called the Widow Remarriage Act 1856.
In 1846 the minimum marriageable age for a girls was only 10 years. In 1891, through the enactment of the Age of Consent Act, this was raised to 12 years.
In 1930, through the Sharda Act, the minimum age was raised to 14 years.
After independence, the limit was raised to 15 and 18 years, respectively in 1948 and 1978.
Equal rights were given to men and women only after independence through the 1956 Right to Hindu Inheritance of Property Act to own property.
In 1917, the issue of women franchise was taken up in relation to the elections for the Provincial Councils, Municipalities and other local self-governing bodies. Prominent women leaders of this time like Sarojini Naidu, Meera Behn, Masturba Gandhi and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur played significant roles in this regard.
The Government of India Act of 1935 granted limited franchise to the Indian women.
Mahatma Gandhi brought out a paper, the Harijan, and also organized the Harijan Sevak Sangh. The Ryotwari settlement was introduced mainly in Madras, Berar, Bombay and Assam.
In 1833, the Mahalwari settlement was introduced in the Punjab, the Central Provinces and parts of north western provinces (Present UP)
. Kutch, Sind and Punjab were known for manufacturing arms; Kolhapur, Satara, Gorkhpur, Agra, Chittor and Palaghat had earned a reputation for their glass industries.Despite enjoying fame in the world, the Indian handicraft industry had begun to decline by the beginning of the 18th century.
  • In 1769, the first steam engine was invented. Comet Napoleon used the first steamer in 1812 in an expedition to Russia.
  • The first railway line was developed between Bombay to Thane. Its inauguration was done on 16 April 1853. First Telegraph Line 1852 between Calcutta and Agra. Postal 1854.

1857 REVOLT(SPK)

1. It was a land mark in Indian history. It was termed as first war of Independence by Savarkar. But ridiculed as Sepoy Mutiny by British as only a part of central India participated in it. Any way it was starting point against British Rule. Had it succeeded, there would has been a different chapter in the History of India.
2. Previous Mutinies – Bengal 1764, Vellore 1806, 47th Regiment 1824 and 34th, 22nd, 66 and 37 native infantry in 1844, 1849, 1850 and 1852.
3. Reasons for the Revolt- It can be divided into individual Reasons and social, Economic, political and administrative Reasons
4. Individual Reasons
a) Grievance of Native Rulers – Doctrine of Lapse – Annexation of Awadh abolition of titles. Successor of Bahadur Shah would be known as princes.
b) Grievance of Sepoys – Para 2 above c)Grievance of Orthodox and conservative people – Domination of Christian missionary- abolition of Sati, widow remarriage act, protection of converts from Hinduism 1856
d)Grievance of crafts man, peasants and Zamindars Village and crap destroy, Zamindars affected by permanent settlement and strict collection of Revenue
5. Economic Causes – Heavy Taxation Borrowed from Money lenders – drain of wealth – Destruction ofvillage industries and crafts manship and permanent settlement
b) Political Cause – Subsidiary Allowance, doctrine of lapse
c) Social Cause – Conversion, Sati, Widow Re-marriage
d) Administrative Cause: Corruption
6) Immediate cause – Introduction of New Enfield Rifle in January 1867 with Greased Cartridge with fat of Cows and Pigs – Sepoys of 19th N.I. at Berhampur disobey on 26.02.1957 and Mangal Pandey of 34 N.I. at Barakpur started it.
7. Courses of Revolt
a) Beginning 10.05.1957. Sepoy at Merut started – British tried to control by declaring Bahadur Shah as Emperor of India – No effect – Massacre of British Civil Military Officers.
b) Spread – to various Places as detailed below.
c)Centres, leaders and suppression
I. Delhi – Bahadur Shah II – Arrested and deported to Rangoon
II Kanpur – Nana sahib, Tantiatope – Killed at Gwaliar III Lucknow – Begum of Awadh – defeated Bihar - Kunwar Singh
IV Jansi – Rani Lakshmi Bai – She Captured Gwaliar – Lost later
8. Reasons for failure : a) Only Central region participated
b) Un Sympathetic attitude and Hostility of many native rulers seek non participation by Bengal, Punjab, Bombay, Madras c) Hostility of Money lenders and Merchants
e) Weakness of Revolters f)Strong British
9) Hindu Muslim unity factor – First time Witnessewd –Accepted Bahadur Shah – Sentiment of Both respected – Ban on Cow slaughter ordered – Both Hindu and Muslim were included in main positions .
Conclusion: It was not successful due to factors mentioned above – yet it was starting point. It was more than Sepoy- Mutiny – Due to these there was major transformation in British policy- Try divide and rule by provoking Muslims. Above all company’s rules ended.


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